This analysis demonstrates that the nature of conflicts is multidimensional, and more dynamic than traditionally conceived by both firms and governments. Most conflicts materialize through the interaction of environmental, social, governance, and economic drivers over a long period.
Overall, deficient planning, reduced access to resources, lack of community benefits, and lack of adequate consultation were the most prominent conflict drivers. In many cases, conflicts escalated because grievances and community concerns accumulated, going unresolved for many years. In general, conflicts may arise during any phase of an infrastructure project, but our analysis shows that the earliest phases are increasingly vulnerable to conflicts.